Cervical Cancer: Types, Causes, and Treatment

Cervical cancer starts in the lower part the uterus (cervix) cells. The cervix is a tube that connects the uterus to the vagina. In cervical cancer, the cells begin to grow out of control.

The cervix is made of two different cells that make two different parts of the cervix:

  • Endocervix is the tube-like opening that leads to the uterus, made up of glandular cells.
  • Exocervix is the outermost layer of the cervix examined by the doctor during the speculum exam. It is made up of squamous cells.

The junction of these two parts where two types of cells meet is the transformation zone. The location of this zone keeps on changing with time. For example, maximum cervical cancer is known to begin in the transformation zone. Many doctors have noticed a significant rise in the cases of cervical cancer.

Types of cervical cancer:

The following are the types of cervical cancer:

  • Adenocarcinomas cancer develops in glandular cells, usually in the endocervix area of the transformation zone.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: almost 9 out of 10 cervical cancer cases are squamous, developing in the exocervix, made up of squamous cells.

Causes of Cervical cancer:

DNA controls the development of cells in the body. DNA is the chemical in our cells that make genes, and genes control how cells work. Ocenogenes help cells grow, divide, and stay alive while tumor suppressor genes control the growth and ensure that cells die at the right time.

Cancer is usually caused by the DNA mutations that turn off or significantly reduce the effect of Tumour suppressor genes. Causes can vary from Smoking, HIV infection, and HPV. HPV is Human papillomavirus, which has a protein known to turn off the tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells in the cervix to grow too much, leading to cancer formation.

Symptoms of cervical cancer:

Symptoms of cervical cancer may differ from patient to patient, but the earlier symptoms may include:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding, bleeding after menopause, bleeding in between periods.
  • Unusual discharge from the vagina.
  • Pain in the pelvic region
  • Pain during intercourse.

Diagnosis of Cervical cancer:

The following tests are important and are common for detecting cervical cancer.

  • HPV Test
  • Colposcopic biopsy
  • Endocervical scraping
  • Cone biopsy

If any presence is detected, these tests are done further to establish the intensity:

  • Cystoscopy
  • Proctoscopy
  • CT Scans
  • PET Scans


There are several Cervical Cancer Treatment in Mumbai based on the stages and type of the cancer

Surgery: Many women with cervical cancer will go through surgery for the following reasons: diagnosing, examining the spread of cancer, and surgically removing cancer in the early stage.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the injection of anti-cancer drugs into the vein. Since these drugs are injected into the bloodstream, they can easily reach all body parts.

HIPC: HIPEC( hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is an alternative to traditional chemotherapy, it is far effective in treating cancer that has spread through the abdominal cavity. It offers better odds to completely eliminate the cancer-causing tumors.

It is advised not to ignore the earlier symptoms of cervical cancer. It can lead to the further spread of cancer. Dr. Amit Gandhi is an accomplished and experienced cancer specialist in Mumbai. If you are experiencing any of the symptoms, book an appointment with us immediately!


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